Japanese Hiragana

How to read small Hiragana (Yōon) and (Sokuon)

 Hiragana 3

A small Hiragana ,ya, yu or yo (ゃ, ゅ or ょ) is added at the ending of i-row (きki, しshi, ちchi, にni, ひhi, みmi , りri, ぎgi, じji, びbi, ぴpi)

This changes the i vowel sound to a glide (palatalization) to a, u or o, e.g. きゃ (ki + ya) /kya/. Small y kana is called yōon.

 

ki き kya きゃ kyu きゅ kyo きょ
shi し sha しゃ shu しゅ sho しょ
chi ち cha ちゃ chu ちゅ cho ちょ
ni に nya にゃ nyu にゅ nyo にょ
hi ひ hya ひゃ hyu ひゅ hyo ひょ
mi み mya みゃ myu みゅ myo みょ
ri り rya りゃ ryu りゅ ryo りょ
gi ぎ gya ぎゃ gyu ぎゅ gyo ぎょ
ji じ ja じゃ ju じゅ jo じょ
bi び bya びゃ byu びゅ byo びょ
pa ぱ pya ぴゃ pyu ぴゅ pyo ぴょ

 

しshi +ゃ ya ⇒ しゃ sha

いしゃ⇒ isha (doctor)

かいしゃ ⇒ kaisha (company)

ひhi +ゃya ⇒ ひゃhya

ひゃく⇒ hyaku (hundred)

 

にni +ゅyu ⇒ にゅnyu    ぎgi + ゅyu⇒  ぎゅ gyu

ぎゅうにゅう ⇒ gyuu nyuu (milk)

 

 

 

* double consonants… small つ“っ” called Sokuon.

きて⇒ kite ( please come)

きって⇒ kitte (stamp)

 

みっつ⇒ mittsu (three)

むっつ

* small circle “゜”called Handakuten (Handakuon)

は ha ⇒ ぱ pa    ひ hi ⇒ ぴpi

 

いっぷん ⇒ ippun (one minute)

きっぷ ⇒ kippu  (ticket)

はっぴょう⇒ happyo (announcement)

ぴpi + ょyo ⇒ ぴょpyo